عنوان مقاله [English]
As a fact of sentient life, suffering is a concomitant problem of the
human existence. Throughout the history people from different
backgrounds and points of view, such as psychological, philosophical
and mystical, have tried to solve this problem. Thus suffering, more
than any other fact of human life, raises the philosophical questions that
religion customarily tries to answer; questions such as: Is there any
relation between suffering and evil? As the absolute Good, what is the
role of God in relation to suffering and evil? What is the best remedy of
human suffering? Theists answered to these questions in different
ways. Rumi was one of them who tried to find reasonable explanations.
His reflections about suffering, as revealed in Mathnavī, can be traced
back to his Islamic beliefs on the one hand, and to the teachings of
Borhān Al-dīn Tirmadhī, a sufi master who emphasized the blame
(malāma) and asceticism (riyada), and Shams Tabrizi, who stressed the
importance of love in thariqah (the Path) on the other hand.
As a Muslim, Rumi observed the suffering from the Islamic point
of view. Firstly, he referred to creation as the purposeful act of God and
then by explaining the problem of freedom and determinism, described
the true suffering as the sweet fruit of the Divine love, so much so that
a true lover should willingly submit her/himself to it. Rumi’s frequent
referring to Islamic sayings and traditions is the sign of the influence of
religious teachings on him.