هستی‌شناسی، معرفت‌شناسی و روش‌شناسی تعریف دین از نگاه توماس لوکمان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ادیان و عرفان تطبیقی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه ادیان وعرفان تطبیقی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار،گروه ادیان و عرفان تطبیقی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.30495/jrs.2022.20790

چکیده

لوکمان دین را نظامی معنایی تعریف می­کند که انسان را از ماهیت بیولوژیک خود فراتر برده و به کنش‌گر صحنه­ی اجتماعی تبدیل می­کند. از آنجاکه درک مبانی فلسفی علم برای فهم و تفسیر دقیق نظریه­ها و نتایج پژوهش مهم است و بنیان اندیشه­ی محقق و میزان انسجام نظریه او را روشن می‌کند، در نوشتار حاضر مبانی هستی‌شناختی، معرفت­شناختی و روش­شناختی این تعریف بررسی شده است. لوکمان در هستی­شناسی موضعی بینابین دارد؛ در این­که دین در رابطه‌ بیناذهنی افراد به وجود می­آید برساخت­گرا و در این­که به عنوان نهاد، قدرت کنترل اجتماعی دارد واقع‌گرا به نظر می‌رسد. او در معرفت‌شناسی و روش­شناسی، برساخت‌گرا است و معتقد است پدیدارشناسی رهیافتی است­که می­تواند چارچوبی برای درک مفاهیم و اندازه‌گیری واقعیت اجتماعی از موضع برساخت­گرا به دست بدهد اما در روش­ میان جامعه­شناسی به عنوان علم و پدیدارشناسی به عنوان فلسفه تمایز می­نهد و پدیدارشناسی را هم­چون زمینه نظری برای اندیشه خویش به کار می­گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ontology, Epistemology and Methodology of Religion according to Thomas Luckmann

نویسندگان [English]

  • samane feizi 1
  • Mehdi Hassanzadeh 2
  • behzad hamidieh 3
1 PhD Candidate of Religion and Mysticism, Faculty of theology, Ferdowsi University of Mashad
2 Associate Professor of Religion and Mysticism, Faculty of theology, Ferdowsi university of Mashad
3 Assistant Professor of Comparative Study of Religion and Mysticism Department at University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Luckmann defines religion as a meaning system that transcends man from his biological nature to become actor of the social scene. Since understanding the philosophical foundations of science is important for understanding and interpreting theories and research results accurately and clarifies the basis of the researcher's thought and coherence of his theory, in this paper the ontological, epistemological and methodological foundations this definition has been investigated. Luckmann has an intermediate position in ontology; he seems to be realistic in that religion arises in the intersubjective relationship of individuals, and has the power of social control as an institution. In epistemology and methodology, he is constructivist; believes that phenomenology is an approach can provide a framework for understanding the concepts and measuring social reality from a constructivist standpoint. But in method, he distinguishes between sociology as science and phenomenology as philosophy, and uses phenomenology as a theoretical context for his thought.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Thomas Luckmann
  • Religion
  • Ontology
  • Epistemology
  • Methodology
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